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Additional resources for A textbook of inorganic chemistry vol.VI part III Vanadium, Niobium, and Tantalum
The small grain size implies that solubility of the quartz is enhanced, thereby favouring ASR. indb 31 12/16/2010 3:47:42 PM 32 Alkali-aggregate reaction and structural damage to concrete Deleterious expansion resulting from in ASR depends also on the amount of reactive silica, in conjunction with the nature of the reactive aggregate. For example, highly reactive forms of silica such as opal may require only 2 per cent by mass to cause deleterious expansion, while less reactive varieties such as greywackes require in excess of 20 per cent to be problematic (Oberholster, 2001, Alexander and Mindess, 2005).
Class II is common for new aggregate sources, in which case further testing by way of accelerated mortar or concrete prisms will be required. A Class III aggregate generally contains opal or opaline silica. For existing aggregate sources, Classes I and III are the common possibilities. The long-term concrete prism method (AAR-3) is regarded as the standard reference test, but the suite of tests is useful for a full characterisation of an aggregate source. Generally, it is unwise to rely solely on the accelerated mortar bar test and results should be confirmed by the longer-term concrete prism test – a comment that can be applied equally to the discussion earlier in this section.
Gravel-sized particles Evidence of AAR gel and reaction 2 RAPID INDICATOR TESTS (to determine whether aggregates are potentially reactive or innocuous) ASTM C289 Siliceous aggregates, Aggregates placed in Results checked Potential alkali crushed and sieved 1M NaOH solution at against calibration reactivity of aggregates (150–300 μm) 80°C for 24 h. Analysed curve; pass/fail (chemical method). for dissolved silica and criterion Determination of reduction in alkalinity (deleterious or potential reactivity of potentially siliceous aggregates deleterious) 12/16/2010 3:47:42 PM Not recommended for aggregates such as greywacke, hornfels, quartzite, granite, etc.