Download Acids and Bases (Essential Chemistry) by Kristi Lew PDF

By Kristi Lew

Acids and bases are crucial elements of the wildlife that play key roles in drugs and undefined. This booklet takes an in depth examine those interesting, but contrasting, components, giving concrete, genuine international examples with quite a few vibrant illustrations.

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Regardless of how much water is in a solution, however, a strong acid or base will completely dissociate into its ions and a weak acid or base will ­not. NEUTRALIZATION ­REACTIONS When acids and bases come into contact with one another, a chemical reaction called a neutralization reaction takes place. A neutralization reaction is a double displacement reaction. In a double displacement reaction, the positive ions from one reac-­ tant take the place of the positive ions in the other reactant. For example, if hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide react with one another, the positive sodium ion in sodium hydroxide will take the place of the hydrogen ion in the hydrochloric ­acid: HCl + NaOH ➝ NaCl + H2O hydrochloric sodium water sodium acid ­chloride hydroxide The positive and negative ions in each reactant have switched partners to produce the ­products—­water and a ­salt.

Most pool stores sell pH testing kits to monitor the pool’s pH and chemicals to adjust ­it. indd 49 11/16/09 2:08:43 PM 50 acids and bases one electron in order to have eight valence electrons, a stable state according to the octet rule. Chlorine forms ions with a –1 charge. When the positive and negative ions come together to form the chemical compound hydrochloric acid, one hydrogen ion (with a +1 charge) and one chlorine ion (with a –1 charge) will combine to produce the electrically neutral chemical compound ­HCl.

So, oxygen has a charge of –2. That means that two hydrogen atoms are needed to balance out oxygen’s –2 ­charge. However, the equation built so far does not follow the law of conservation of matter. If the number of atoms on the ­ left-­hand side and the number of atoms on the ­right-­hand side of the equa-­ tion are added up, they do not balance. Take the hydrogen atoms, for example. On the ­left-­hand side of the equation, there are three Acids and Bases in Chemistry 53 hydrogen atoms (two in sulfuric acid and one in potassium hydrox-­ ide), but the ­right-­hand side of the equation only has two hydrogen atoms (both of them in water): + KOH ➝ K2SO4 + H2O H2SO4 3 hydrogen atoms 2 hydrogen ­atoms 1 sulfur atom 1 sulfur ­atom 5 oxygen atoms 5 oxygen ­atoms 1 potassium atom 2 potassium ­atoms The extra hydrogen atom on the reactant side of the equation cannot just disappear.

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