By Ralf H. Dahm, Derek M. Brewis
Fluorinated polymers have a few very important homes akin to first-class chemical resistance. even though, they're often tricky to bond with no pretreatment. There are exceptions and untreated poly(vinylidene fluoride), for instance, can be effectively bonded with an amine-cured epoxide. the simplest easy methods to pretreat totally fluorinated polymers have been constructed within the Nineteen Fifties. a lot paintings, particularly on electrochemical and plasma remedies, has considering the fact that been conducted yet to this point those haven't proved as potent because the early equipment. in part fluorinated polymers should be handled like polyolefins, for instance, flame, and plasma remedies are very potent. Aqueous and alcoholic strategies of team I hydroxides also are very powerful. Fluoropolymers provides a mixture of houses together with hot temperature resistance, very good resistance to many chemical substances and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, hearth resistance and coffee friction. Fluoropolymers are rather pricey and they're as a rule utilized in specialized functions corresponding to linings for chemical plant, spacecraft coatings which are proof against atomic oxygen, fire-resistant coatings for cables, and naturally, non-stick features. There are greater than twenty diversified fluoropolymers which are commercially on hand. reliable adhesion is needed in a few applied sciences concerning fluoropolymers together with adhesive bonding, portray, printing, metallisation (via vacuum or answer) and composite creation. although, absolutely fluorinated polymers resembling PTFE and FEP are notoriously tricky to stick to, whereas partly fluorinated polymers comparable to PVDF and PVF can cause difficulties counting on the situations. to accomplish a passable point of adhesion, it's always essential to perform a pretreatment with either totally and partly fluorinated polymers. during this evaluate the rules of adhesion are thought of first (Section 2). concepts that experience drastically elevated our knowing of adhesion to fluoropolymers are defined in part three. circumstances the place stable adhesion is accomplished and not using a pretreatment are tested in part four. even though, as pretreatments tend to be had to get the necessary point of adhesion, this overview is especially interested by the big variety of tools on hand to pretreat fluoropolymers (Section 5). A normal dialogue and conclusions stick with. This Rapra evaluation file contains a concise, professional evaluate, supported by way of an in depth bibliography compiled from the Polymer Library with regards to adhesion to fluoropolymers. This bibliography presents additional info in this topical box. This evaluation might be of curiosity either to those that already use fluoropolymers and people who are contemplating utilizing them.
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Extra info for Adhesion to Fluoropolymers
This is probably due to a failure to eliminate weak boundary layers. g. PVDF with an amine-cured epoxide. g. with a flame. • Partially fluorinated polymers may be rapidly treated with aqueous or alcoholic Group I hydroxides. J. Bikerman, Adhesives Age, 1959, 2, 2, 23. 2 H. H. Hansen, Journal of Applied Science, 1967, 11, 1461. 3 I. Sutherland, Loughborough University, private communication. J. R. Beck, inventors; Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, assignee; US Patent 2789063, 1957. A. Benderly, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 1962, 6, 20, 221.
The basis of these properties is the formation of chemical bonds between PTFE and PA by transamidation in a melt modification reaction. The effective processing and the material properties of PA are combined with the excellent anti-friction properties of PTFE in this innovative material. Test specimen of PA and PA-PTFE obtained by twocomponent injection moulding process show very high interfacial adhesion. The processability of this material on polymer processing equipment and the use of available materials favours the commercialisation of these new PTFE polyamide compounds.
This was attributed to the increased surface roughness. The adhesion levels of untreated and treated PTFE were measured using a tensile test in which the polymer was bonded to ‘sample holders’. 75-fold increase in adhesion in the best case. It should be pointed out that the value for untreated PTFE was 200 kg/cm2, which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reported results. 45 GHz) and also with sodium naphthalenide in dimethyl ether of ethylene glycol. XPS showed that all treatments brought about extensive defluorination and the introduction of oxygen, and in the cases of treatment with sodium naphthalenide or an ammonia plasma, also nitrogen.