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38 Language Revitalization Processes and Prospects For the Shuar, who number about 45,000 and reside principally in the Amazon basin, self-determination within the context of a recognized, pluri-cultural Ecuadorian state has been the over-arching goal (Puwáinchir Wajárai, 1989). For the Shuar, as is true for many native groups, land and agrarian rights are inextricably connected to cultural and linguistic survival; maintenance of one is dependent upon the survival of the other. A new type of organization for indigenous groups began in Ecuador with the formulation of the Federación Shuar, one which worked to defend the Shuar territory, the base of their cultural system, and also to obtain recognition of and respect for Shuar cultural and social traditions (Ruiz, 1989).

G. 42 Language Revitalization Processes and Prospects CONAIE, 1990; Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, 1982). The codification and move towards standardization of Quichua Unificado was intended to facilitate the acquisition of literacy and the development of Quichua literature, and to contribute to the maintenance and even revitalization of the language. However, while unified in written form, it was accepted and expected that the regional varieties would continue to vary in their spoken forms (CONAIE, 1990).

2, the same term frequently is employed to describe quite different phenomena and circumstances. e. with no remaining native speakers), Leap (1981) and Marshall (1994) use the same term to refer to situations where the language is merely threatened. Of all of the similar and often over-lapping terms, perhaps the most well known and widely used is Fishman’s reversing language shift (RLS). First and foremost, RLS aims to reinstate intergenerational transmission of a particular language-in-culture pattern (Fishman, 1991).

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