Download Aperçu d’une histoire de la langue grecque by Antoine Meillet PDF

By Antoine Meillet

The echoes of Greek are heard in lots of glossy languages. for instance, the summary vocabulary of the trendy ecu languages derives principally from the vocabulary of the Greek philosophers and students, no matter if without delay or through Latin writers who have been expert in keeping with the Greek culture. First released in 1913, Antoine Meillet's background of Greek indicates how the language, derived initially from Indo-European, built through the years in line with sociological and geographical elements. Meillet argues that its complexity is because of the consistent borrowing of vocabulary and grammar from modern languages and local dialects. regardless of - or due to - its versatile and ever-changing nature, and the inability of consistency in utilization among person urban states, Greek ultimately turned the language of serious works of literature, philosophy and technological know-how.

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Les deux points fixes auxquels on peut s'attacher sont, d'une part, l'indo-europeen commun, tel que la comparaison de toutes les langues indo-europe"ennes amene a. 144 on Thu Nov 04 15:43:18 GMT 2010. OPEENNES I 3 voir, compte tenu du peu que l'on apercjoit des differences dialectales ayant existe en indo-europeen, et, d'autre part, le grec commun prehistorique, tel que la comparaison des donne'es des textes grecs de toutes sortes et de toutes regions permet de le determiner (on entendra ici par grec commun la langue sensiblement une sur laquelle reposent tous les dialectes grecs anciens; il ne faut pas confondre ce « grec commun » avec la xoivrj posterieure).

Mais le -y-a, on le sait, disparu du grec; il est resulte de la que l'ancien type un en *-yo a ete brise en plusieurs types distincts, dont l'explication n'est pas toujours claire. On voit bien comment (SasiXeu? a donne (kcnXsuw, comment etXog (vocatif ^i'Xe) a donne ©iXdw, comment SfjXo? pi'£w de ipiq, IpiSo? p£§jyw. ^w, -a^w a depasse ensuite plus ou moins les limites premieres de son emploi. Au lieu d'un type en -yu>, le grec s'est procure ainsi, par suite de l'elimination du y, huit ou dix types productifs de denominatifs dont chacun a son role particulier.

004 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press, 2010 20 PR£HISTOIRE DU GREC Les autres sont specifiquement helleniques et caracterisent le developpement propre du grec. Le systeme des occlusives est devenu simple, mais pauvre. Le grec ne possede que trois series d'occlusives : labiales, dentales, gutturales, chacune avec trois types : sourdes, sourdes aspirees, sonores,'soit: * X T Sans doute, le point ou etaient articulees les gutturales variait suivant la voyelle qui suit; et certains alphabets archaiiques distinguent le x, de xe ou ya du q de qo ou de qj (avec u prononce ou dans les parlers qui ont cette graphie).

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