By Clement A. Ogaja
Utilized GPS for Engineers and venture Managers introduces civil engineers in particular those people who are now not already authorized surveyors to the elemental ideas of worldwide positioning know-how (GPS). This ebook covers GPS fundamentals, together with positioning and measuring rules, recommendations to enhance accuracy, and an research of inexpensive as opposed to high-precision platforms. next chapters clarify the issues for choosing and enforcing a GPS approach after which exhibit particular functions of GPS in numerous engineering occasions, together with tracking the future health of buildings, robotics and laptop keep watch over, maritime operations, fabric monitoring in huge building websites, web site keep watch over and layout, and tracking geohazards. This ebook can be worthy for all civil engineers drawn to taking advantage of using GPS applied sciences.
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Additional info for Applied GPS for Engineers and Project Managers
001 deg per week. The calculation for the satellite position in ECEF coordinates at time t within the ephemeris week is provided in Appendix 3. Since it takes the signals some time reach the receiver, the satellite will have moved during that time. Therefore, a small correction is needed between the satellite,position as calculated for the time of arrival (TOA) and the actual position on the time of departure (TOD). GPS POSITIONINGAND MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLES 31 I Figure 2-6. GPS trilateration. 2921 151467 X radh (Earth angular veloczty) The estimated range, pot is derived from the pseudorange measurement and, if possible, corrected for the receiver clock bias.
2-1). This system is sometimes referred to as the ECEF (Earth-centered Earth-fixed) system. The origin of the coordinate system is at the Earth’s center of mass that corresponds with the center of the WGS-84 ellipsoid (intersection of equatorial plane and axis of rotation). The X-axis lies in the equatorial plane with its positive end intersecting the Greenwich meridian. The Y-axis lies in the equa- Satellite (S) Figure 2-1. Geocentric WGS-84 Cartesian coordinatesfor satellite S. CIO is the Celestial International Origin and the superscript CTS stands for Conventional Terrestrial System.
24 APPLIED GPS FOR ENGINEERS AND PROJECT MANAGERS of Defense) necessitated the development of a coordinate system appropriate for global use. The coordinate system would be based on a global geodetic datum (a mathematical surface, an ellipsoid, used to approximate the Earth’s shape and size). The satellite technology required that the center of the ellipsoid and the center of the geoid (Earth’s mass) coincide, meaning that the ellipsoid is geocentric around the center of the Earth‘s gravity,just as the orbits of the GPS satellites are.