By Dr. William F. Clocksin (auth.)
This publication is for those who have performed a few programming, both in Prolog or in a language except Prolog, and who can locate their manner round a reference guide. The emphasis of this publication is on a simplified and disciplined technique for discerning the mathematical buildings on the topic of an issue, after which turning those constructions into Prolog courses. This publication is hence no longer thinking about the actual good points of the language nor approximately Prolog programming talents or recommendations often. a comparatively natural subset of Prolog is used, together with the 'cut', yet no input/output, no assert/retract, no syntactic extensions comparable to if then-else and grammar principles, and infrequently any integrated predicates except mathematics operations. I belief that practitioners of Prolog application ming who've a specific curiosity within the finer info of syntactic variety and language positive factors will comprehend my reasons in now not discussing those issues. The presentation, which i think is novel for a Prolog programming textual content, is by way of an summary of simple recommendations interleaved with worksheets. the assumption is that worksheets are similar to musical workouts. conscientiously graduated in scope, every one worksheet introduces just a constrained variety of new principles, and provides a few tips for practicing them. the rules brought within the worksheets are then utilized to prolonged examples within the type of case studies.
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Additional info for Clause and Effect: Prolog Programming for the Working Programmer
We can use  to terminate the branches of leaf nodes. Here is a typical tree. 7 n(9, [), ) /'~ '~ 7 n(17, [), ,m ~ n(20, n(15, , ) The location of nodes in the tree depends on the ordering relation (here integer less-than) and on the order in which nodes were inserted. Insertion into an Ordered Tree We want a program to insert items (integers) into an ordered tree. The desired predicate insert should be defined such that goals of the form insert(ltem, OldTree, NewTree) cause Item (an integer) to be inserted in OldTree to give NewTree.
Transpose(R, [Hie]) :- firstcol(R, H), nextcols(R, T), transpose(T, e). Note that the first clause of transpose matches the matrix with empty columns. Practice. This program is inefficient because it traverses the input matrix twice for each call to transpose. It be improved by defining a multiple disjoint map instead of the two partial maps firstcol and nextcols. Suppose we are given a new second clause for transpose that uses a goal chopcol(R, H, L), where R is a matrix, H is a list being the first column of R, and T is a matrix being the remaining columns of R: transpose(R, [Hie]) :- chopcol(R, H, T), transpose(T, e).
It follows that if 'cut' is called when there is only one possible solution, then the 'cut' has no effect. Cut has several uses: 1. To change a non-deterministic predicate into a deterministic (functional) one. For example, we wish to check whether X is a member of a list L. If it is a member, we wish to discard the alternative choices. This is done by a deterministic membercheck predicate, which might be more efficient than the usual member, but cannot be used to generate multiple solutions. membercheck(X, [XU) :- !.