By George L. Campbell
From Afrikaans to Zulu, nearly a hundred languages from the excellent Compendium of the World's Languages are featured during this new concise model. Many articles were revised. The Concise Compendium offers a close comparative research of the key and plenty of of the lesser identified languages of the realm. integrated are representatives of all language households, with samples of Amerindian, resembling Navajo and of African languages, akin to Fulani and Nama; languages of politically autonomous teams within the former USSR, like Uzbek and Belorussian; these of political strain teams, similar to Breton and Catalan and demanding community/ethnic languages, together with Amharic and Vietnamese. all through, the therapy is authentic and jargon-free. Articles are ordered alphabetically and every has a typical constitution for ease of reference: * common old and sociolinguistic advent * writing approach * sound process * grammatical approach A passage from the Gospel of St. John illustrates every one language with a written culture. those scripts are defined in an appendix on the finish of the e-book. offers a hundred of the world's significant languages and representatives of other language teams, politically major languages and especially fascinating ones.
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Extra info for Concise Compendium of the World's Languages,
101 Bjarni Vilhjálmsson 1944. 102 It may be said that essentially the same policy has been followed ever since. It is true that many foreign words have entered the language and some of them have adapted well to the phonetic and inflexional system of Icelandic, but the main tendency has been to form new words from native stems. At the same time the many loan-words which were commonplace two centuries ago have gradually been replaced by native words, both ancient and modern. The language of the most recent generations is not considered here in any detail, but the change has undoubtedly been much greater in the written language than in the spoken, for many Icelanders who use foreign words freely in speech try hard to avoid them when writing matter intended for publication.
The earliest evidence suggests that a fair number of scribes observed the custom of writing k before front vowels and c elsewhere. The reason for this was probably not that k was regarded as a special symbol for palatal k, but rather the fact that before front vowels c no longer represented a k sound in contemporary Latin pronunciation. This differentiation between use of k and use of c was gradually dropped in the thirteenth century, though some scribes tended to prefer k in initial positions and c medially and finally, and in the fourteenth century c was only in restricted use.
In Icelandic writing it is first found in the first half of the thirteenth century, and it was gradually adopted by more and more scribes, using it instead of ﬂ or alongside ﬂ in medial and final positions. It was exceptional to use › at the beginning of a word but its capital form ‹ could be used as a decorative initial at the start of a chapter. Soon after 1300 medial and final ﬂ was a rarity and by about 1400 it had disappeared altogether in these positions. It was replaced, however, not so much by › as by d.