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By Svetlana Tsalik, Professor Anya Schiffrin

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Extra info for Covering Oil: A Reporter's Guide to Energy and Development (Lifting the Resource Curse, 2)

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Bitumen is mined from sand, sandstone, or other sedimentary rocks, whereas conventional crudes are drilled. One of a number of nonconventional crudes, bitumen is currently produced from the tar sands of Canada and Venezuela. Bitumen undergoes various washes and treatments to separate the oil content from sand, water, and minerals, and is then diluted with condensate. As a result of undergoing these processes, bitumen has become known as “synthetic crude,” sometimes shortened to “syncrude,” although in strict linguistic terms it is not synthetic at all.

38 COVERING OIL Reserves and resources Resources are not quite the same as reserves. ” To the politician worrying about energy security or to the layman fretting over whether the world will run out of oil, a reasoned resource analysis is probably more relevant than a simple reserve estimate. 047 trillion barrels for proved reserves. But to this figure, the USGS added 612 billion barrels of what it termed “mean conventional reserve growth”—essentially an increase from existing fields due to improved oil recovery techniques.

9 Source: Energy Policies 2002, IEA Paris 2002 Climate Change, namely, cutting global CO2 emissions by 7 percent from their 1990 levels. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol remains the focus of the world’s efforts to combat global warming. However, these efforts remain severely hampered by the refusal of the United States to ratify the protocol. S. economy while exempting such major population centers as India and China. S. responsibility for such a large proportion of global CO2 output remains a source of considerable controversy, not least because the Bush administration’s focus on exemptions secured by China and India glossed over the relative contributions of these two countries.

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