By Inigo Gutierrez, Juan Meléndez, Erik Hernández
Varactors are passive semiconductor units utilized in digital circuits, as a voltage-controlled means of storing power so as to enhance the volume of electrical cost produced. some time past, using reasonably cheap fabrication methods akin to complementary steel oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and silicon germanium (SiGe) have been saved for built-in circuits operating in frequency levels under the GHz. Now, the elevated operating frequency of radio frequency built-in circuits (RF ICs) for verbal exchange units, and the fad of system-on-chip know-how, has driven the necessities of varactors to the restrict. because the frequency of RF functions maintains to upward thrust, it truly is crucial that passive units comparable to varactors are of optimal caliber, making this a serious layout issue.Initially describing the actual phenomena that ensue in passive units inside typical IC fabrication techniques, layout and Characterization of built-in Varactors for RF functions is going on to:- current info at the layout of huge band electric varactor versions (up to five GHz) which allow the exact prediction of equipment performance;- suggest a particular method for the dimension of built-in varactors, masking on-wafer size buildings, the calibration strategy, and designated descriptions of the mandatory equipment;- clarify de-embedding concepts and in addition examine self assurance point and uncertainty associated with the try set-up;- learn the layout of a voltage managed oscillator (VCO) circuit as a pragmatic instance of the employment of tools mentioned within the ebook. delivering the reader with the required technical wisdom for facing not easy VCO designs, this ebook is a necessary consultant for working towards RF and microwave engineers engaged on the layout of digital units for built-in circuits. it's also an invaluable reference for postgraduate scholars and researchers attracted to digital layout for RF purposes.
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Additional info for Design and Characterization of Integrated Varactors for RF Applications
3. If the depletion zone is greater, it means that the virtual capacitance plates are further apart (d). Therefore the total capacitance will be lower: C¼e A Á d ð2:1Þ An increase in the plate area (A) would lead to an increase in capacitance. Later we shall see that to obtain maximum capacitance, the largest depletion zone must be found, increasing the perimeter of the PN junction (Hernandez, 2002). As we have seen, varying the inverse voltage varies the depletion zone and, therefore, the capacitance, which is the purpose of all varactors.
This explains the different behaviour of an NMOS in accumulation and inversion modes. 12 leads to the conclusion that the capacitance values for negative bias voltage values of Var M8 (inversion) coincide with the capacitance values of Var M3 (accumulation) with a positive voltage. The reason for this coincidence lies in the fact that both measurements give the value of the oxide capacitance, which coincides in both varactors as they are geometrically the same. 1. As shown, there is no clear difference for these parameters between both configurations.
12 leads to the conclusion that the capacitance values for negative bias voltage values of Var M8 (inversion) coincide with the capacitance values of Var M3 (accumulation) with a positive voltage. The reason for this coincidence lies in the fact that both measurements give the value of the oxide capacitance, which coincides in both varactors as they are geometrically the same. 1. As shown, there is no clear difference for these parameters between both configurations.