By M. Jeroen Fonderie
Design of Low-Voltage Bipolar Operational Amplifiers discusses the sub-circuits essential to construct a low-voltage operational amplifier. those contain rail-to-rail enter levels, rail-to-rail output levels, intermediate phases, safeguard circuitry and frequency repayment ideas. of every of those, a number of implementations are tested. moreover, the ebook discusses realizations in silicon of the amplifiers.
The layout and implementation of low-voltage bipolar Operational Amplifiers (OpAmps) is absolutely provided. A low offer voltage is critical as the tendency in the direction of chip parts of smaller dimensions lowers the breakdown voltage of those parts. extra, a low offer voltage is favorable since it permits operation of the OpAmp from only one unmarried battery phone. The bipolar know-how is selected, since it is extra suited to operation at low-voltages than the MOS technology.
The common-mode enter voltage of the OpAmp has to be in a position to have any worth that matches in the offer voltage variety. enter levels are mentioned that are capable of become aware of this at provide voltages right down to 1.8 V, in addition to all the way down to 1 V.
The output voltage of the OpAmp has to be in a position to have any price in the offer voltage diversity. one of many 1 V output phases that's mentioned, the multi-path pushed output degree, additionally has a excessive bandwidth with a excessive gain.
as well as the enter and output degree, the OpAmp includes an intermediate degree, among the enter degree and the output level, to spice up the final achieve of the OpAmp, and a category AB present control.
A frequency reimbursement process is used to separate aside the pole frequencies within the move functionality. a drawback of this nested Miller repayment, is that the ensuing bandwidth is lowered via an element of 2. a brand new procedure, multi-path-driven Miller repayment, which doesn't have this hindrance, is accordingly introduced.
numerous realizations are evaluated and a determine of advantage is outlined for the functionality comparability of the OpAmps. one of many OpAmps operates at a 1 V provide, has a 3.4 MHz bandwidth with a a hundred pF load and has a seven hundred &mgr;A offer current.
The booklet is a wonderful reference for pro designers of amplifiers and should be used as a textual content for complex classes at the subject.
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Extra resources for Design of Low-Voltage Bipolar Operational Amplifiers
2] J. H. Huijsing and R. J. S. Pat. Appl. Ser. No. 231, filed April 19, 1984.  J. H. Huijsing and D. Linebarger, "Low-Voltage Operational Amplifier with Rail-to-Rail Input and Output Ranges", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. SC-20, pp. 1144-1150, Dec. 1985.  J. H. Huijsing, Integrated Circuits for Accurate Linear Analogue Electrical Signal Processing. D. Thesis, Delft Univ. , Delft, the Netherlands 1981, p. 65.  P. R. Gray and R. G. Meyer, Analyses and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits.
II) CD CO II) ,sa 'tJ C :s - !!!. :J:J 0I .!. :J:J !!!. 26 Input Stages Q 14 is conducting and transfers the tail current IB2 to the differential amplifier Q I 2> QJ3. 6 V and in this case the differential amplifier QI2' QI3 directs its tail current to the positive supply; the level shift is not activated. 1 V. Now transistor Q 12 starts to take over a part of the current through QJ3 and mirrors it to the level-shift resistors. While the CM-input voltage is further rising, the negative-feedback loop consisting of the p-n-p input stage Q3' Q4' the differential amplifier QI2' QJ3 and the current mirrors QI8-Q24 keeps the voltage difference at the input of the differential amplifier Q I 2> QI3 small.
12, the minimum supply voltage of the circuit shown in If the base current of Q8' Q9 is supplied in a different way, and Q8 is not a diode, the minimum value of the supply voltage can be slightly lower than 1 Volt. If a p-n-p input pair was added to the circuit shown in Fig. 11, the area indicated by nIBl saturates" would also be included in the operational regions. In  an input stage is described that allows the input voltage to be even further beyond the supply rails. Fig. 11 is 1 Volt. 5 REFERENCES  B.